Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records : научное издание

Тип публикации: статья из журнала

Год издания: 2017

Идентификатор DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2875

Ключевые слова: NORTHERN-HEMISPHERE, Past millennium, Tree-rings, Indonesia, ad, temperature, consequences, Lombok

Аннотация: The eruption of Samalas in Indonesia in 1257 ranks among the largest sulfur-rich eruptions of the Common Era with sulfur deposition in ice cores reaching twice the volume of the Tambora eruption in 1815. Sedimentological analyses of deposits confirm the exceptional size of the event, which had both an eruption magnitude and a volcanic explosivity index of 7. During the Samalas eruption, more than 40 km(3) of dense magma was expelled and the eruption column is estimated to have reached altitudes of 43 km. However, the climatic response to the Samalas event is debated since climate model simulations generally predict a stronger and more prolonged surface air cooling of Northern Hemisphere summers than inferred from tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions. Here, we draw on historical archives, ice-core data and tree-ring records to reconstruct the spatial and temporal climate response to the Samalas eruption. We find that 1258 and 1259 experienced some of the coldest Northern Hemisphere summers of the past millennium. However, cooling across the Northern Hemisphere was spatially heterogeneous. Western Europe, Siberia and Japan experienced strong cooling, coinciding with warmer-than-average conditions over Alaska and northern Canada. We suggest that in North America, volcanic radiative forcing was modulated by a positive phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Contemporary records attest to severe famines in England and Japan, but these began prior to the eruption. We conclude that the Samalas eruption aggravated existing crises, but did not trigger the famines.

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Издание

Журнал: Nature Geoscience

Выпуск журнала: Т. 10, 2

Номера страниц: 123-128

ISSN журнала: 17520894

Издатель: Nature Publishing Group

Авторы

  • Guillet Sébastien (Univ Bern, Inst Geol Sci, Dendrolab Ch, Baltzerstr 1 3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland)
  • Corona Christophe (Univ Blaise Pascal, CNRS, UMR 6042, Geolab, 4 Rue Ledru, F-63057 Clermont Ferrand, France)
  • Stoffel Markus (Univ Geneva, Dept Earth Sci, Rue Maraichers 13, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland)
  • Khodri Myriam (Univ Paris 06, Lab Oceanog & Climat Expt Approches Numer, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 05, France)
  • Lavigne Franck (Univ Paris 1 Pantheon Sorbonne, Lab Geog Phys, 1 Pl Aristide Briand, F-92195 Meudon, France)
  • Ortega Pablo (Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, NCAS Climate, Reading RG6 6BB, Berks, England)
  • Eckert Nicolas (UR ETNA Univ Grenoble Alpes, Irstea, 2 Rue Papeterie, F-38402 St Martin Dheres, France)
  • Sielenou Pascal Dkengne (UR ETNA Univ Grenoble Alpes, Irstea, 2 Rue Papeterie, F-38402 St Martin Dheres, France)
  • Daux Valérie (Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Sci Climat & Environm, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ,UMR8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France)
  • Churakova (Sidorova) Olga V. (Siberian Fed Univ, RU-660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia)
  • Davi Nicole (Univ Arizona, Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY 10964 USA)
  • Edouard Jean-Louis (CNRS, UMR 7299, CCJ, Maison Mediterraneenne Sci Homme 5 Rue Chateau, F-13094 Aix En Provence, France)
  • Zhang Yong (Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Excellence & Innovat Tibetan Plateau Earth Sy, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China)
  • Luckman Brian H. (Univ Western Ontario, Dept Geog, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 5C2, Canada)
  • Myglan Vladimir S. (Siberian Fed Univ, RU-660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia)
  • Guiot Joël (Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, Coll France,CEREGE,ECCOREV, F-13545 Aix En Provence, France)
  • Beniston Martin (Univ Geneva, Inst Environm Sci, Climat Change & Climate Impacts, 66 Blvd Carl Vogt, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland)
  • Masson-Delmotte Valérie (Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Sci Climat & Environm, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ,UMR8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France)
  • Oppenheimer Clive (Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Downing Pl, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England)

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