Тип публикации: статья из журнала
Год издания: 2020
Идентификатор DOI: 10.17580/nfm.2020.01.03
Ключевые слова: inert anodes, aluminium electrolysis, co2 emission, metallic anode, cermet anode, ceramic anode, oxygen-evolving electrode, fluoride melt, corrosion, oxidation, low-temperature electrolyte, hall-heroult cell
Аннотация: This update includes the literature related to the inert anodes which were published in the past decade. The metallic anodes are widely regarded as promising candidates to replace the carbon anodes due to its attractive properties like good electrical conductivity, easy to manufacture and high resistance to high thermal shocks. The metals have been tested in pure state and alloy (binary, ternary) form. The oxide scale formed on the anode surface acts as a barrier between the electrolyte and the anode, which protects the anode from being dissolved. The layer of molten fluorides is formed between the scale and the metal anode after a certain time of polarization, and the oxide scale acts as a bipolar electrode. Metal like Cu is reduced at the internal side of the scale. This paper elaborates the effects of various parameters on the performance of the anode. Cu-based alloys (Cu - Ni - Fe and Cu - Al) have shown promising results and could perform well in low-temperature electrolytes. It has been well established that the Cu content in Cu - Ni - Fe and Cu - Al alloys plays a major role in the metal dissolution as the CuO/Cu2O scales formed on the outer layer act as a sacrificial one. The corrosion rate of an anode can be reduced by decreasing the operating temperature, which is possible by using the KF - AlF3 melts. The use of suspensions can increase the purity of the produced metal by stopping the anode products to come in contact with cathode metal. Many industries including RUSAL and ELYSIS are still conducting a considerable amount of research to develop an inert anode and are expecting to have a carbon-free cell in the nearest future.
Журнал: NON-FERROUS METALS
Выпуск журнала: Is. 1
Номера страниц: 15-23
ISSN журнала: 20720807
Место издания: MOSCOW
Издатель: ORE & METALS PUBLISHERS
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