Перевод названия: EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MITIGATION SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT PROBLEM IN ARCTIC ZONE OF SIBERIA FEDERAL DISTRICT IN MODERN CONDITIONS
Тип публикации: доклад, тезисы доклада, статья из сборника материалов конференций
Конференция: ПРЕДУПРЕЖДЕНИЕ ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫХ СИТУАЦИЙ В АРКТИКЕ И КООРДИНАЦИЯ РАБОТ ПО ИХ ЛИКВИДАЦИИ, ВКЛЮЧАЯ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ; Дудинка; Дудинка
Год издания: 2008
Аннотация: The necessity of mitigation system improvement in Arctic zone of Siberian federal district in modern conditions is determined by the number of factors. Among them both wide specter of emergency situations sources of natural, man-induced, biosocial and existing peculiarities of socio-economic development of this region. If no additional measures are taken negative influence of these factors in nearest future may become stronger because Taimyr and Evenki autonomous areas became part of united territorial subject of the Russian Federation - Krasnoyarsk region as municipal region, that may cause reduction of territorial management level, reduction of efficient response to the possible emergency situations in Arctic zone. In these conditions it is considered advisable to plan creation of specialized authorized body of everyday management of special federal submission zone - Arctic management, to achieve natural and technogenic monitoring system, substantially extend system of immediate response. In the report the main problems of Arctic zone of Siberia in the sphere of protection of population and territories from emergency situations and their possible ways of solving are dwelled on. General characteristics of Arctic part of Siberia federal district is shown at the screen. USSR Council of ministers Arctic State Commission by it's decision from April 24, 1989 localized the whole Taimyr autonomous area to Arctic. The most northern point not only of Russia, but of Europe - Cape of Cheluskin lies on it's territory - 77degrees43 minutes north latitude. The biggest river of Kara sea basin is Ynisej, within the described region it has length of 600 km, near Dudinka city it is 5 km wide, depth is up to 21-24 m. Within the territory of peninsula Ynisej is easy for sea-craft access. The biggest river of Laptev sea basin is Khatanga. Taimyr peninsular lies on the way of cyclones, coming mostly from the West. More frequently they go through the northern coast of Taimyr peninsular and Taimyr plain. Strong winds, snowstorms and snow blasts are the most typical features of Taimyr peninsular. Annual temperature ranges from 30-34 degrees on the coast to 40-43 degrees in the inner parts of peninsular. As of January 1, 2007 number of inhabitants is 39,4 thousand people, 26 - urban and 13,4 - country. Taimyr region of Krasnoyarsk district consists of 4 regions, Administrative center of the region - city of Dudinka with the population 25, 1 thousand people. Population density is very low - one settlement for 30 340 sq.km.. At average in 26 inhabitants live 634 people each. There are only 9 small towns with the population from 300 to 500 people, 8 small towns with the population from 500 to 1000 people, where 53,1% of country population lives, population of all the rest small towns is less than 300 people. Proceeding from above, specific characters of Arctic zone are: • ·Extreme for human living natural and climatic conditions negatively influencing people's health (low annual temperatures, prolonged polar night and prolonged polar day, ice cover of seas and rivers for more than half a year, frequent magnetic storms, strong winds and snowstorms, heavy fogs, ever frost); • ·Region, where natural complexes with specific and unique flora and fauna are perfectly saved and deemed to be an important part of biological variety of the planet which loss will toll the ecosystem stability potential; • ·Economic activity and life necessities demand extra charges to compensate hard natural conditions, extra transport expenses caused by dependence from fuel delivery, food and manufactured goods are carried using complex transport schemes, air and water ways including North Sea Route and small rivers; • Population consists mostly of social migrants, who spend in Arctic some time and than return to the place of their habitual residence, and North minorities; • Historically there were no settlements in Arctic, the whole infrastructure was made with reclaiming natural resources and development of means of communication and transport. There are either "monotowns" that actually serve big industrial enterprises, ports or under populated territories with local nation settlements, geological or meteorological stations; In general Arctic territory is of little use for living, but large mineral reserves make this region attractive for reclaiming. High rate of technogenic factors among the sources of emergency situations is determined by the following conditions: Most of important for the economic of Russia natural resources are located in Arctic zone. Working in Arctic companies are world giants ("Gasprom", oil companies, "Norilsk nickel"), at the same time geological exploration of Arctic zone of Siberia region is the lowest on the territory of Russia. Main branches of industry are: extraction (gas, complex ore, coal), fishing (plants in Dudinka, Katanga, Ust-port). Peculiarity of Arctic zone is unique transpolar city united municipal entity "city of Norilsk", situated on the territory of Taimyr autonomous area and is a part of Krasnoyarsk district of Russian Federation. Population of this united municipal entity "city of Norilsk" as of 01.10.2008 is 220, 5 thousand people: Norilsk - 133,4 thousand people Talnakha - 58,6 thousand people Kajerkana - 27,2 thousand people Snezhnogorka - 1,3 thousand people Within the city and in industrial area there are a lot of enterprises and sites posing threat to the population and environment, so called tehnogenic threat. According to the Federal law of 21.07.97 No. 116 "About industrial safety of dangerous manufacturing facilities. There are 32 enterprises in united municipal entity "city of Norilsk" that have dangerous manufacturing facilities. It is considered advisable to recommend to Emercom of Russia together with interested federal ministries, committees and companies to establish specialized authorised body of federal submission of everyday management - Emercom of Russia Arctic Authority, to strengthen emergency situations monitoring and forecasting system, to establish in the region Comprehensive Emergency Rescue Centre (or centres) for the purpose of improving emergency situations forecasting system, raising emergency situations response efficiency. Establishment of such a body could contribute to interaction and teamwork efficiency. Foreign partners are invited to take part in the activities. For the implementation of these proposals workshop participants suggested the following practical measures: 1.. To continue development of unified executive monitoring service on the basis of unified rescue telephone number - 01 in all regions and inhabited localities of Taymyr municipal district. 2. To establish within Taymyr municipal district emergency situations monitoring and prediction system. 3. To establish Arctic branch of National Management Centre in Emergency Situations of Emercom of Russia (on the basis of Arctic department); 4.. To reorganize fire fighting units into fire fighting and rescue units, to give training and appraisal of fire fighters to the rescuers, continue modernization of equipment, to arrange implementation of new technologies of fire fighting on water-free basis. 5.. To prepare and submit to the Russian Federation Government proposals concerning opening in Arctic zone of Siberian Federal District Coordination Rescue Centre of Ministry of Transport of Russia (preferably in Dickson, Taymyr region) and formation on it's basis united rescue units of Ministry of Transport and Emercom of Russia. 6. To develop and supply emergency rescue services with specially developed rescue means and emergency rescue tools in Arctic version. 7.. To improve air rescue equipment and technique for specific use in Arctic conditions. To equip aircrafts with avionics system, efficient in conditions of low temperatures. 8.. To develop special technologies of first aid considering specific conditions of Arctic, development of "Arctic direction" of emergency medicine. To recommend direct testing of Food supplement "Yagel" on the population of Arctic regions, considering detoxication results of Yakutia scientists developments as very positive. 9. To carry out research work and technology developments directed at stabilizing basements of buildings and constructions and also waterworks build in conditions of permafrost, to initiate development of technologies of emergency repair works for such buildings and constructions.
Журнал: ПРЕДУПРЕЖДЕНИЕ ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫХ СИТУАЦИЙ В АРКТИКЕ И КООРДИНАЦИЯ РАБОТ ПО ИХ ЛИКВИДАЦИИ, ВКЛЮЧАЯ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ
Номера страниц: 12-27
Место издания: Москва
Издатель: Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт по проблемам гражданской обороны и чрезвычайных ситуаций МЧС России
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