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Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture

Тип публикации: статья из журнала

Год издания: 2009

Ключевые слова: culture studies, methodology, A. Comte, K.H. Marx, B.K. Malinowski, A.R. Radcliff-Braun, L. White, social determinism

Аннотация: Culture studies become more popular at the current stage of development of science. The object of some researchers is theoretical development of problematics of culture; the others intend to deal with applied investigations of new spheres of human life. But in spite of the very essence of investigations on culture (theoretical or empirical) and its object, selection of methodological principles remains one of the most important problems for every concrete program of research on culture. A brief historical survey of the problem of selection of methodological principles for research on culture, carried out in the article, allowed us to draw a conclusion that the program of contemporary culture studies is based on the principle of necessity for direct observation of various forms of social correlations; and a concrete program of scientific investigations on culture is stipulated by selection of methodology for study of social interrelations. On the one hand, selection of the basic form of social interrelations depends on subjective intentions of a researcher carrying out his investigations on culture; on the other hand, selection determines concrete objects and methods of culture studies based on direct observation of peoples social life. Consideration of the genesis of the West-European and American investigations on culture on the base of studying of K.H. Marxs, I.A.М.F.X. Comtes, B.K. Malinowskis, A.R. Radcliff-Brauns, and L. A. Whites conceptions allowed us to examine the process of formation of methodology of culture studies. Its starting point was K.H. Marxs discovery of economic relations as the only possible foundation of social relations, according to his conception. There appeared a fork in the further development of methodology: one of its branches still remains determined by economy and the other is a progressive alternative of formation of methodology of culture studies initiated by I.A.M.F.X. Comte, who had turned metaphysical speculations to positive scientific control over social processes. B.K. Malinowski kept on with that vector of development; the step he made towards formation of methodology of culture studies is a turn from speculative theorizing to study of social reality in field condition. A.R. Radcliff-Braun confirmed the methodological thesis on division of approaches of research on culture into speculative, or ethnologic, and functional, or socio-anthropological, ones. According to A.R. Radcliff-Braun, socio-anthropological method is of more importance, for it allows us to deduce general functional principles of existence of culture on the base of the phenomena of social life directly observed. L.A. Whites desert is synthesis of historical and functional methods carried out and enriched, each taken separately.

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Журнал: Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Серия: Гуманитарные и социальные науки Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Гуманитарные и социальные науки

Выпуск журнала: Т. 2, 4

Номера страниц: 491-506

ISSN журнала: 19971370

Место издания: Красноярск

Издатель: Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования Сибирский федеральный университет


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