Социальная политика Временного правительства: идеи и опыт реализации (март - октябрь 1917 г.) : научное издание | Научно-инновационный портал СФУ

Социальная политика Временного правительства: идеи и опыт реализации (март - октябрь 1917 г.) : научное издание

Тип публикации: статья из журнала

Год издания: 2018

Идентификатор DOI: 10.17223/15617793/428/18

Ключевые слова: благотворительность, общественное призрение, социальная политика, временное правительство, Министерство государственного призрения, charity, public contempt, social policy, provisional government, Ministry of State Charity

Аннотация: Рассматривается одна из проблем социальной истории - реализация в чрезвычайных условиях войны и революции либерально-демократических представлений о социальной помощи. На основе архивных документов, журналов заседаний, законодательных актов, материалов периодической печати анализируется деятельность Временного правительства по организации социальной помощи населению в целом и его отдельных социальных групп. Сделан вывод о выработке кардинально нового понимания социальной политики в дооктябрьский период 1917 г. This article discusses the implementation of the liberal and democratic concepts of social assistance in the extraordinary environment of war and revolution. The activities of the Provisional Government aimed at organization of social assistance to the population in general, and to individual social groups that suffered during World War I (families of recruits, orphans, homeless children, disabled in action, refugees) are analyzed on the basis of archival documents, minutes, regulatory acts, materials of periodicals. It is discovered that some decrees of the Russian Provisional Government were implemented as urgent measures aimed at smoothing the complicated social situation. Simultaneously, the established Ministry of State Charity developed promising fields of assistance to the poor: categories of the poor and principles of social assistance arrangement were determined (participation of state, public authorities, charity societies). The Government supported the concept of preventive measures to avoid poverty: insurance, assistance in searching for jobs, arrangement of welfare works, development of loan agencies, consumer societies and others. For the first time in Russian history the Ministry of State Charity concentrated the aspects of social policy at the governmental level and performed general management of this field. The Government attempted to centralize the system of social care and at the same time to democratize the procedure of social care: to stimulate creativity and responsibility of local authorities and public agencies. An area-distributed system of assistance was developed guided by local governments and supervised by local officers of the Ministry of State Charity. It was proposed to introduce special inspections for child care structures. The main concern was about financing, it was a consequence not only of inflation but also of the destruction of former charity channels of financing. It is concluded that a new cardinal concept of social care was developed in the pre-October period of 1917. The general and challenging trend of further development of social legislation, state charity, was determined; the notion of social care itself appeared. The results of the activities of the Provisional Government became the basis for the development of the Soviet system of social care concerning centralization and unification.

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Издание

Журнал: TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY JOURNALTOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY JOURNAL

Номера страниц: 134-140

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