Тип публикации: статья из журнала
Год издания: 2015
Идентификатор DOI: 10.17223/19988613/35/6
Ключевые слова: Yenisei Province, Kansk, the First World War, speculation
Аннотация: Saving the principle of free trade in the Russian Empire during the First World War led to rampant speculation. Siberia was a major supplier of food and raw materials for the active army, in 1915 she began to experience serious food difficulties. The article shows that in the agricultural Kansk County of rear Siberian province speculation became one of the major reasons for the increase in agricultural prices and food shortages. With the outbreak of hostilities supply of goods from the occupied territories had ceased. Russian producers lost foreign raw materials, their production decreased significantly. Factories and plants reoriented their work primarily on the needs of the army. The purchases of food for the army on the domestic market were carried out without the consent of the interests of the local population. All this was accompanied by a disorder of the credit system, the depreciation of the ruble, rising taxes. The war affected the rail system: boxcars were used for troop transport. For the Siberian region it had disastrous consequences, since there was no industrial production of consumer goods. Due to the lack and high cost of many products on the market, as well as a ban on sales of alcoholic beverages increased consumption of grain. Given the overall economic situation in the country, military defeats, the peasants held back grain in anticipation of higher prices for it, supplies of grain to the city markets declined. Buying grain from farmers, dealers compete with each other and increased purchase prices. Following the increase in the price of grain, the prices of other products rose as well. The situation in 1916 was very hard everywhere. Many products completely disappeared from the market, on the others the prices were kept high. On speculation someone made a fortune, it took a variety of forms. Local authorities within their powers were not able to restrain or prevent numerous facts of buying and reselling products for profit. System of fixing the prices, municipal wholesale procurement of essential commodities and selling them to the public at reduced prices, cooperation with consumer cooperatives, police and administrative measures did not give results. Extraordinary nation-wide measures were required. Speculation led to the paradoxical situation: despite the large stocks of products in the region, lack of food crisis in the country, there was an artificial shortage of products in the Siberian cities. The largest increase of the price was for essential products - bread, meat, potatoes, butter. This increase was taken seriously by the poorest people of towns and villages. Rumors about oncoming hunger and the introduction of cards were spreading. The increasing social inequality during the war was perceived negatively, embittered the people, and turned into a conflict factor. Difficult economic situation, loss of authority of political power, violation of the principles of social justice, inefficient work of local authorities - these and other factors shaped the social tensions in Kansk County. In the county there were no signs of hunger, no food riots. But in 1916 and 1917 in Kansk took place the soldiers' disturbances. They were a spontaneous form of social protest and took place at the time when the population has felt the weakening of state power in the country.
Журнал: VESTNIK TOMSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO UNIVERSITETA-ISTORIYA
Выпуск журнала: Is. 3
Номера страниц: 38-43
ISSN журнала: 19988613
Место издания: TOMSK
Издатель: TOMSK STATE UNIV
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