СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ И ПРОБЛЕМЫ СОХРАНЕНИЯ ГУСЕЙ НА ЮГЕ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ СИБИРИ

Перевод названия: CURRENT STATUS AND PROBLEMS OF CONSERVATION OF GEESE IN THE SOUTH OF CENTRAL SIBERIA

Тип публикации: статья из журнала

Год издания: 2016

Аннотация: Work on nesting and migrating groups of geese in Central Siberia has been regularly conducted since 1980. The present communication provides details characterizing the period from 2006 to 2015. The studies were carried out according to the standards of a complex of methodological procedures adopted for the region. The arena of the studies included the territory of Tuva, Khakassia and Krasnoyarsk districts, from the Say-an Mountains to the Angara River basin. The total length of the survey routes was more than 30 000 km. Analysis of the data showed that the abundance of nesting (four species) and migrating (?ve species) geese is subject to signi?cant interannual ?uctuations, but has a steady negative trend. The local population of Greylag geese (Anser anser) ?nds itself on the verge of utter annihilation. Not more than 300 of these geese remain within the borders of the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Khakassia and the adjacent parts of Kemerovo Oblast. Over the past decade, their numbers decreased by more than 66.7 %. A ban on spring hunting on the Greylag Goose in recent years and its inclusion in the Red Data books of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia have not yet yielded any results. The chief reason for the decline in numbers is excessive removal in neighbouring regions. Against a background of further fragmentation of its range, the Eastern Taiga Bean Goose (Anser fabalis middendorf?i) remains at low numbers. The vulnerable Sayan subpopulation is comprised of only 1500-2000 individuals. For the study period, the abundance of geese in key habitats decreased 33.3-50 %. More stable local populations of the subspecies living in Tuva are inhabiting the waterbodies of the Todzha Basin. Up to 60 % of the birds of the region are concentrated there. Along the northern slopes of the Western Sayan Mountains the geese survive in disparate focal points: the Tyukhtet-Shadat marshes (30-50 pairs) and the basins of the Kazyr, Kizir and Upper Abakan rivers (20-30 pairs). Practically none remain in the western Eastern Sayan Mountains and the Kuznetsk Alatau. Several tens of pairs of the Eastern Siberian Taiga Goose inhabit basins of the right bank of tributaries of the Angara River, although their numbers are far from stable and are decreasing. A local population of the Bar-headed Goose (Eulabeia indicus) suffered from in?uenza virus A and was reduced in some places by 75- 80 %. Against this background, the previously observed spreading of the species to Khakassia and the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai was halted. The total number, by various estimates, does not exceed 200-300 individuals. The Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) nests only in the middle and lower reaches of the Tes-Khem (Tes River). Its total abundance currently consists of 100-200 individuals. The abundance of a major migrating species, the Tuva-Minusin subpopulation of the Western Tundra Bean Goose (Anser fabalis serrirostris), was reduced by more than 50 % in 2011-2012, dropping to 3500-5000 individuals. After introduction of a ban on the taking of these geese and the entering of the given local population into the Red Data Book of Krasnoyarsk Krai (2012), and then into that of Khakassia (2014), the decline in numbers was suspended. A complex of environmental protection measures positively impacted the state of the resources of this Bean Goose. During spring 2014, the population reached 11 000 individuals, and in 2015, 13 000. Moreover, an absolute majority of the birds, of the given local population, was con?ned to the area of Lake Salbat, where they form their spring and autumn migratory ?ocks. The numbers of the migrating groups of Bean geese in the Lower Angara Basin dropped signi?cantly (by more than 66.7-80 %) and continue to decline. Their stopovers on migration in the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe and the Kanskaya Basin have practically disappeared. Other migrating species of geese (the White-fronted Goose, Lesser White-fronted Goose, and Red-breasted Goose) are extremely low in numbers and their appearance is episodic in nature. For the conservation of geese in the south of Central Siberia, administrative measures of a systemic nature, including multifaceted monitoring, regulatory provision for protective measures, a ban on spring hunting on all species of geese and the creation of a network of Protected Areas within the main migration corridors must be implemented. It is important to strengthen the work on environmental education of the population and, above all, of hunters.

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Издание

Журнал: Казарка: бюллетень Рабочей группы по гусеобразным Северной Евразии

Выпуск журнала: Т. 19, 1

Номера страниц: 129-152

Место издания: Москва

Издатель: Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова"

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