Модель фундаментальной химической подготовки бакалавров технико-технологических направлений в условиях смешанного обучения : научное издание | Научно-инновационный портал СФУ

Модель фундаментальной химической подготовки бакалавров технико-технологических направлений в условиях смешанного обучения : научное издание

Тип публикации: статья из журнала

Год издания: 2019

Идентификатор DOI: 10.17853/1994-5639-2019-6-72-92

Ключевые слова: фундаментальная химическая подготовка, информационно-деятельностная образовательная среда, химическая компетенция, общекультурные и общепрофессиональные компетенции, профессиональные компетенции, смешанное обучение, fundamental chemical training, information-and-activity-based educational environment, chemical competency, cross-cultural and general professional competencies, professional competencies, blended learning

Аннотация: Введение. Ядро технического знания составляют фундаментальные математические, физические и химические знания, необходимые для создания и совершенствования приборов, материалов и технологий, грамотного осуществления производственных операций и применения различных химических веществ в промышленной сфере с учетом их влияния на окружающую среду и организм человека. Изучение основ химии, с которыми будущие инженеры обычно знакомятся на младших курсах университета, играет важную роль в формировании не только химической компетенции, но и компонентов общекультурных, общепрофессиональных и профессиональных компетенций. Однако анализ образовательной практики показывает несоответствие уровня химической подготовки выпускников вузов современным квалификационным требованиям, предъявляемым к профессии инженера. Цель публикации - рассмотреть один из вариантов повышения качества химического образования бакалавров технико-технологических специальностей посредством смешанного обучения в информационно-деятельностной образовательной среде (ИДОС). Методология и методики. Исследование выполнялось с опорой на многоуровневую методологию, включающую диалектические принципы, категории и закономерности теории познания, идеи системного, личностно-ориентированного, интегративного, технологического, компетенгностного, информационно-деятельностного и средового подходов. Задействовались методы сравнительного анализа и концептуального моделирования. Оценка результатов педагогического эксперимента осуществлялась с помощью методики диагностики рефлексивных умений и метода медианы; на основе компонентного анализа сформированных компетенций рассчитывался коэффициент системности знаний. Результаты и научная новизна. Разработана концепция и структурно-функциональная модель фундаментальной химической подготовки бакалавров в ИДОС смешанного обучения. В данной модели, объединяющей в целостную систему взаимосвязанные целевой, содержательный, организационно-управленческий, процессуально-деятельностный и результативно-оценочный блоки, аккумулируются достижения в области электронного обучения и предусмотрено освоение предметного, методологического инвариантов и вариативного компонента учебной программы, составляющих в совокупности фундаментальную химическую подготовку. Электронный обучающий курс позволяет благодаря использованию технологий видеоконференцсвязи и Web 2.0 гибко рационально сочетать аудиторную и самостоятельную работу студентов, модернизировать лекционные и практические занятия. Современные педагогические проектные технологии, поступательное развитие критического мышления и последовательное введение в лабораторный химический практикум элементов исследовательской деятельности способствуют позитивной динамике качества приобретаемых бакалаврами знаний, умений и навыков. Проводившаяся в Сибирском федеральном университете с 2015 по 2018 г. апробация описанной в статье модели подтверждает ее эффективность. Практическая значимость. Проекция на вузовскую практику изложенных автором теоретико-методологических основ фундаментальной химической подготовки бакалавров, обучающихся по широкому спектру программ технико-технологических направлений, может значительно улучшить результативность получаемого профессионального образования и повысить конкурентоспособность выпускников на рынке труда. Introduction.. The core of technical knowledge is formed by the fundamental mathematical, physical and chemical knowledge, which is necessary for creation and improvement of devices, materials and technologies, competent implementation of production operations and use of various chemicals in the industrial sphere, taking into account their influence on the environment and the human body. Fundamental chemical training plays a significant role in the formation of chemical competency and development of the components of cross-cultural, general professional and professional competencies of future engineers. However, the analysis of educational practice demonstrates the discrepancy between the level of fundamental chemical training of graduates and the modern requirements to engineering education. Methodology and research methods. The research was carried out on the basis of multilevel methodology including dialectical principles, categories and regularities of the knowledge theory. The key ideas of the system-based, person-oriented, integrative, technological, competency-based, information-and-activity-based and environmental approaches were employed. The methods of comparative analysis and conceptual modelling were used. The assessment of the results of a pedagogical experiment was conducted by means of the method of diagnostics of reflexive abilities and the median method; the coefficient of system knowledge was calculated on the basis of the component analysis of the formed competencies. Results and scientific novelty. The concept and the structural-functional model of the fundamental chemical training of bachelors in the information-and-activity-ba-sed educational environment of blended learning have been proposed. This model provides a holistic framework for the interconnected target, content, organisational and administrative, procedural activity-based and productive evaluative blocks. Moreover, the model accumulates the achievements in the field of e-learning and involves the acquisition of the subject (chemical), methodological invariants and the variable component of the academic programme that together constitute the fundamental chemical training. An e-learning course based on videoconferencing and Web 2.0 technologies allows teachers to efficiently integrate classroom and independent work of students and to upgrade lectures and practicals. Modern pedagogical project-based technologies, gradual development of critical thinking, sustainable implementation of elements of research work into laboratory chemical practicum contribute to the positive dynamics of the quality of students’ acquired knowledge and skills. The approbation of the model, which was carried out in Siberian Federal University from 2015 to 2018, has confirmed its efficiency. The results of the model adaptation are demonstrated in the present article. Practical significance. As presented by the author of publication, the theoretical-methodological bases of fundamental chemical training of the bachelors, enrolled in a wide range of programmes of technical and technological directions, can considerably improve the effectiveness of vocational education and increase the competitiveness of graduates in the labour market. Introduction. The core of technical knowledge is formed by the fundamental mathematical, physical and chemical knowledge, which is necessary for creation and improvement of devices, materials and technologies, competent implementation of production operat Introduction. The core of technical knowledge is formed by the fundamental mathematical, physical and chemical knowledge, which is necessary for creation and improvement of devices, materials and technologies, competent implementation of production operations and use of various chemicals in the industrial sphere, taking into account their influence on the environment and the human body. Fundamental chemical training plays a significant role in the formation of chemical competency and development of the components of cross-cultural, general professional and professional competencies of future engineers. However, the analysis of educational practice demonstrates the discrepancy between the level of fundamental chemical training of graduates and the modern requirements to engineering education. Methodology and research methods. The research was carried out on the basis of multilevel methodology including dialectical principles, categories and regularities of the knowledge theory. The key ideas of the system-based, person-oriented, integrative, technological, competency-based, information-and-activity-based and environmental approaches were employed. The methods of comparative analysis and conceptual modelling were used. The assessment of the results of a pedagogical experiment was conducted by means of the method of diagnostics of reflexive abilities and the median method; the coefficient of system knowledge was calculated on the basis of the component analysis of the formed competencies. Results and scientific novelty. The concept and the structural-functional model of the fundamental chemical training of bachelors in the information-and-activity-based educational environment of blended learning have been proposed. This model provides a holistic framework for the interconnected target, content, organisational and administrative, procedural activity-based and productive evaluative blocks. Moreover, the model accumulates the achievements in the field of e-learning and involves the acquisition of the subject (chemical), methodological invariants and the variable component of the academic programme that together constitute the fundamental chemical training. An e-learning course based on videoconferencing and Web 2.0 technologies allows teachers to efficiently integrate classroom and independent work of students and to upgrade lectures and practicals. Modern pedagogical project-based technologies, gradual development of critical thinking, sustainable implementation of elements of research work into laboratory chemical practicum contribute to the positive dynamics of the quality of students' acquired knowledge and skills. The approbation of the model, which was carried out in Siberian Federal University from 2015 to 2018, has confirmed its efficiency. The results of the model adaptation are demonstrated in the present article. Practical significance. As presented by the author of publication, the theoretical-methodological bases of fundamental chemical training of the bachelors, enrolled in a wide range of programmes of technical and technological directions, can considerably improve the effectiveness of vocational education and increase the competitiveness of graduates in the labour market. Introduction. The core of technical knowledge is formed by the fundamental mathematical, physical and chemical knowledge, which is necessary for creation and improvement of devices, materials and technologies, competent implementation of production operations and use of various chemicals in the industrial sphere, taking into account their influence on the environment and the human body. Fundamental chemical training plays a significant role in the formation of chemical competency and development of the components of cross-cultural, general professional and professional competencies of future engineers. However, the analysis of educational practice demonstrates the discrepancy between the level of fundamental chemical training of graduates and the modern requirements to engineering education. Methodology and research methods. The research was carried out on the basis of multilevel methodology including dialectical principles, categories and regularities of the knowledge theory. The key ideas of the system-based, person-oriented, integrative, technological, competency-based, information-and-activity-based and environmental approaches were employed. The methods of comparative analysis and conceptual modelling were used. The assessment of the results of a pedagogical experiment was conducted by means of the method of diagnostics of reflexive abilities and the median method; the coefficient of system knowledge was calculated on the basis of the component analysis of the formed competencies. Results and scientific novelty. The concept and the structural-functional model of the fundamental chemical training of bachelors in the information-and-activity-based educational environment of blended learning have been proposed. This model provides a holistic framework for the interconnected target, content, organisational and administrative, procedural activity-based and productive evaluative blocks. Moreover, the model accumulates the achievements in the field of e-learning and involves the acquisition of the subject (chemical), methodological invariants and the variable component of the academic programme that together constitute the fundamental chemical training. An e-learning course based on videoconferencing and Web 2.0 technologies allows teachers to efficiently integrate classroom and independent work of students and to upgrade lectures and practicals. Modern pedagogical project-based technologies, gradual development of critical thinking, sustainable implementation of elements of research work into laboratory chemical practicum contribute to the positive dynamics of the quality of students' acquired knowledge and skills. The approbation of the model, which was carried out in Siberian Federal University from 2015 to 2018, has confirmed its efficiency. The results of the model adaptation are demonstrated in the present article. Practical significance. As presented by the author of publication, the theoretical-methodological bases of fundamental chemical training of the bachelors, enrolled in a wide range of programmes of technical and technological directions, can considerably improve the effectiveness of vocational education and increase the competitiveness of graduates in the labour market.

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Издание

Журнал: Образование и наука

Выпуск журнала: Т. 21, 6

Номера страниц: 72-92

ISSN журнала: 19945639

Место издания: Екатеринбург

Издатель: федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Российский государственный профессионально-педагогический университет"

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